Rahi Yar Khan or Rahimyar Khan is a city in the south of Punjab province in Pakistan. The previous name of the city was Naushehra which was built as a castle in 1750 by Fazal Elahi Halani on the ruins of the ancient Pul-Wadda. Pul-Wadda had been built during the Sumra rule of Sindh.
In 1883 Nawab Sadiq Khan-IV of Bahawalpur renamed it after his son Rahim Yar Khan. Formerly Rahimyar Khan was also one of the names of the three districts of the former princely State of Bahawalpur until 1955. Today, Rahimyar Khan lies on an important train route which runs south to Sukkur and north to Bahawalpur. According to the 1998 census, the city population was 233,537 with an annual growth rate of 4.04%. As of January 2007, it is around 330,000.
Rahim Yar Khan is bounded on the north by Muzaffargarh District, on the east by Bahawalpur District, on the south by Jasilmir (India) and the Ghotki District of Sindh province and on the west by Rajanpur district.
The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers with a population of 3,141,053(census 1998). The district comprises four Tehsils namely Rahim Yar Khan, Sadiqabad, Liaquatpur and Khanpur. There are three municipal committees and five town committees in the district.
The most important road in Rahim Yar Khan is Shahi Road, which is surrounded by many notable businesses. There are many high schools which are run by the Government. There are 5 Government High schools for boys and 6 for girls. Among leading private schools are, Army Public School and Sheikh Zayed High School. There are separate post-graduate colleges for boys and girls. A campus of Islamia University Bahawalpur is also located in the city.
The climate of the district is hot and dry in the summer and cold and dry in the winter. The summer season is comparatively longer. It starts in April and continues until October. The winter season goes from November to March. However, the month of March and November are pleasant. Dust storms are frequent during the summer season. The average rain fall is about 100 millimeters.
Rahim Yar khan was declared as a separate administration district in 1943. The district derives its name from its headquarter city Rahim Yar Khan. The previous name of this city was Naushehra which was built in 1875 A.D by Fazal Elahi Halani on the ruins of the ancient Pul-Wadda during the Sumra supremacy in Sindh. In the year 1881, the Railway Authorities desired to change the name of railway station in the name of a town called Nowshera situated in Peshawar district. Consequently in 1881 to avoid any confusion because of similar nomenclature, Nawab Sadiq Khan-IV of Bahawalpur changed the name of the sub-division Naushehra after the name of his first son crown prince Rahim Yar Khan.
The district lies between 27.40' - 29.16' north latitudes and 60.45' - 70.01' east longitudes.
The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers. The district comprises four Tehsils namely Rahim Yar Khan, Sadiqabad, Liaquatpur and Khanpur. All the Tehsils are Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA).
Rahim Yar Khan is bounded on the north by Dera Ghazi Khan district, on the east by Bahawalpur district, on the south by Jasilmir (India) and Ghotki district of Sindh province and on the west by Rajanpur district.
Physical features & topographyEdit
This district is divided into three main physical features i.e. (a) Riverine area. (b) Canal irrigated area and (c) Desert area which is called Cholistan. The Riverine area of the district lies close on the southern side of the Indus river mainly falling in the river bed. The canal irrigated area lies on the South and is separated by main Minchan Bund. The approximate height of the irrigated area is 150 to 200 meters above the sea level. The third part of the area called Cholistan lies in the south of the irrigated tract up to the Indo-Pak border. The surface of the desert consists of a succession of sand dunes rising at places to a height of 150 metres and covered with the vegetation peculiar to sandy tracts.
The climate of the district is hot and dry in the summer and cold and dry in the winter. The summer season is comparatively longer. It starts in April and continues till October. The winter season goes from November to March. However, the months of March and November are pleasant. Dust storms are frequent during summer season. The average rain fall is about 100 millimetres. General Description Of The District Rahim Yar Khan
RYK was declared as a separate administration district in 1943. The district derives its name from its headquarter Rahim Yar Khan. The previous name of this district was Naushehra, which was built in 1875 A.D by Fazal Elahi Halani on the ruins of the ancient Pul-Wadda during the Sumra supremacy in Sindh. In the year 1881, the Railway Authorities desired to change the name of a railway station in the name of a town called Nowshera situated in Peshawar district. Consequently in 1881 to avoid any confusion because of similar nomenclature Nawab Sadiq Khan-IV of Bahawalpur also changed the name of the sub-division Naushera after the name of his first son Rahim Yar Khan.
The district lies between 27°- 40¢ to 29°-16¢ north latitudes and 60° - 45¢ to 70° - 01¢east longitudes.
R Y K is bounded on the north by Muzaffargarh district, on the east by Bahawalpur district, on the south by Jasilmir (India) and Ghotki district of Sindh province and on the west by Rajanpur district.
The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers. The district comprises four tehsils, namely Rahim yar Khan, Sadiqabad, Liaqatpur and Khanpur. There are three municipal committees and five town committees in the district.
Physical features and topographyEdit
This district is divided into three main physical features i.e. (a) Riverine area, (b) Canal irrigated area, and (c) Desert area which is called Cholistan. The Riverine area of the district lies close on the southern side of the Indus River mainly falling on the riverbed. The Canal irrigated area lies on the south and is separated by main Minchun Bund. The approximate height of the irrigated area is 150 to 200 meters above the sea level. The part of the area is called Cholistan lies on the south of the irrigated tract up to the Indo-Pak border. The surface of the desert consists of successions of sand dunes rising at places to a height of 150 meters and covered with the vegetation peculiar to sandy tracts.
The flora of the district characterizes two major ecological divisions, northern and southern. The botanical life found in the northern half identifies itself with that of the rest of the irrigated tracts at central Punjab . There had been considerable increase in the cultivated area, factors such as water logging and salinity have badly hit plant life and with the increase of salinity at the surface only the salt resistant plants can survive in most of the area. The southern area of the district is characterized by sand dunes, more or less barren of vegetation except in the rainy season. The bulk of the vegetation consists of stunted, thorny or prickly shrubs and perennial herbs capable of withstanding drought. Most of the vegetation grows in open clump formations with plenty of vacant spaces between them. Distinctly scattered trees of stunted growth are found along the depressions technically known as desert scrub
The climate of the district is hot and dry in the summer and cold and dry in the winter. The summer season is comparatively longer. It starts in the month of April and continues till October. The winter season goes from November to March. However, the months of March and November are pleasant. Dust storms are frequent during summer season. The average rainfall is about 100millimeters.
Generally there is a little rainfall and at times almost none.
Ethnic structure and historyEdit
When Alexander gained victory over Multan, he appointed General Philipos to rule Multan and Uch and advanced himself towards Alor. The country remained under Philops, who was afterwards driven out by Poros after the death of Aleander. This part of the country is also said to have been a part of the Buddhist Empire of Ashoka. Authenticated history of the district begins by about 493 A.D. when Raja dynasty of Rai dynasty came to the throne. In the Rai dynasty dominions were vast, extending from Kashmir and Kanauj to Kandhar and Seistan and on the west to Mekran and a part of Debal, while on the south to Surat . Their capital was Alor and during their rule Sindh was divided into four provinces of Bahmanabad, Siwistan, Chachpur and the province consisting of Multan and west Punjab . The Rai dynasty governed Sindh for 137 years and met its fate when the king Rai Sahasi 11, allowed a Brahman Chach to gain influence in his kingdom. On the death of Rai Sahasi 11, Chach married his widow and established himself on the throne after killing the rightful heir of the Rai. After a reign of 33 years, Chach died and was succeeded by his brother Chandar who after ruling for eight years was succeeded by his nephew Raja Dahir. During Dahir's reign some Arab carrying ships carrying merchandise were attacked and plundered by his subjects. Arsabs demanded compensation and on refusal by Raja Dahir, Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded this area in April 712 A.D and conquered the whole territory up to Multan . Dahir was killed in the battle at Pawar. The territory remained under the various governors appointed by the Abbbasidexzs and the Ummayids from 712-870 A.D. In 871 A.D the powers of Caliphs declined and the province of Sindh slipped from their control. Sindh went under the Balkh dynasty when two participalities, Multan and Mansura (Bahawalpur Division) were founded. In 985 A.D,the Balkh ruler was over thrown by Karamatian (a Persian sect.). In 978 A.D, when Subak Tagin invaded the subcontinent, he left the territory under the sovereignty of Hamid Khan Lodhi, who ruled till 1004 A.D. When Abdul Fateh, son of Hamid Khan Lodhi, revolted against Ghaznavids and was jailed by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Fourteen years later, Mahmud again visited Multan and marched to Somnathpassing through Bahawalpur territory and on his way visited Moujgarh Fort (in Bahawalpur Tehsil ) On his rewturn from the conquest of Somnath. Mahmud placed a Karamatian prince on the throne in theis area. The reign of Karamatian was followed by Sumaras and Samas; who ruled it for nearly 500 years. In the 1578 A.D the territory was invaded and conquered by the Ghjori Sultans of Delhi, who were succeeded by the Mughals. The exodus of the Abbasides nobles of Egypt to India had already started in the reign of Muhammad Taughlak_bin_Ghiasuddin. This Taughlak emperor of India recognised the Abbassides Caliph, Abdul Abbas_Al_Hakim in Egypt and accepted his spiritual leader shiop. He even got the name of the caliph inscribed on the Indian coinage of his reign. In 1366 A.D Amir Sultan Ahmed 11, Abbasi, fiftieth direct descendant from Abdul Qasim Ahmed (the first Abbasid Caliph ruled in Egypt ) migrated to India with his family and a few hundred of followers entered into South through Balochistan and settled down in Sindh. Those Arabs who had already settled in Sindh rallied round the Amir. In the course of time the Amir"s family gradually moved north-ward losing much of the ruler of Jaisdalmir. In 1540, Duddees,a well known trib,e rose to considerable power in the eastern part of Bahawalpur . In the same period, Amir Channi Khan Abbassi was made Ranjhazari by Prince Murad (the son of emperor Akbar Khan the Great) . After the death of Amior Mohammad Channi Khan, quarrels arose between the two sections of Abbasis, the Kalhora and Daudpota tribes. The Arab tribes settled in Bahawalpur, sided with the latter who were destined to create and rule Bahawalpur state. Amir Bahadur Khan Abbasi, the chief of Daupota then came to power he and his descendants wielded small principalities in Bahawalpur state into a united kingdom . Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan 1,Abbasi who came to the power in 1702, was an able commander and leader. Throughout his reign he had to fight many battles against Kalhoras. He abdicated in 1723 A.D in favor of his son, Sadiq Mohammad Khan 1, who was killed in battle with Khuda Yar Kalhora. Amir Mohammad Bahawalpur Khan 1, (1746-1949) ascended the throne in 1746. During his short rule, he built the towns of Bahawalpur, Qaimpur, Hasilpur, Tranda Ali Murad Khan, Shabazpur and Mohammadpur Lamman. During his reign three canals namely Khan Wah, Qutab Wah and Wahi Qaider Dina were dug. As a result the agriculture of the state improved considerably and the people became prosperous. Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan 11 Abbasi (1749-1772) succeeded Amir Muhammed Bahawal Khan 1 Abbasi. In 1750, he captured Marot, Jaissalmor and Madwala and its dependencies west of the Sutlej and Panjnad, now part of Muzaffargarh district from Nahrs. Bet Doma territory which belonged to Makhdum Sheikh Raju of Sitpur was also conquered. Later a part of the country including the important towns of Dunyapur and Kahrorwere occupied. In 1776, the Sikhs confederates jhanda singh, Ganda Singh and Hari singh invaded the Amir"s trans-sutlej territories but were repulsed. Pakpattan was fixed as the boundary between Bahawalpur and the Sikh state. Amir Mohammad Mubarik Khan 11 Abbasi was an able administrator and a powerful ruler. He took keen interest in building his army. Many of the forts on the border of the state were built during his reign. He kept the Sikhs in check. Many canals on which the prosperity of the district depended were constructed during his time. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan II, Abbasi succeeded him and ruled from 1772 to 1809 A.D He assumed the title of Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. In 1777, the Sikh captured Multan.From 1785 to 1788, Amir had to encounter Taimur Shah, the powerful Durrani monarch of Kabul.Bahawalpur was plundered by Durranis, the town was burnt and destroyed. The Fort Derawar was also occupied and Taimur Shah garrisoned it with troops under his general Shah Muhammad Khan Badozai, but eventually the Amir drove out the Durranis after fighting many fierce battles. In 1802 Shah Muhammad of Kabul sent a valuable Khilat and title of Mukhlis-ud-daudla. A mint was started at Bahawalpur in 1802, where gold, silver and copper coins were made. The first treaty between Bahawalpur and the British government was affected in 1883, which remained in force till the August14 th, 1947 when the state acceded to Pakistan . After Muhammad Bahawal Khan 11, prince Abdullah Khan under the title of Sadiq Muhammad Khan II (1809-1825) was proclaimed Amir of Bsahawalpur . The greater part of his reign passed in repelling the attacks of the Amirs of Sindh, in suppressing the rebellions of his own Umaras and protecting his conquered territories. On the death of Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan II in 1825 A.D, Amir Bahawal Khsan III ascended the throne in 1825 at Derawar. He ruled from 1825-1852 A.D. On his accession to the throne Amir sent presents to Maharaja sent his congratulations and some presents to Amir. As some dues for the lease of Dera Ghazi Khan had not been paid for several years, Ranjit Singh sent for a force under General Venture to expel the governor appointed there by the Amir of Bahawalpur without giving him any opportunity for parley. General Ventura occupied Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan, and they thus passed from the rule of the state. The Amir was very upset at this loss. Alliance with neighbouring states Sindh, Bikanir or Jaisalmir were out of question for they were already hostile to Bahawalpur . Ranjit Singh sent a large force under Sham Singh Atariwala to Kahoror to invade the state on any pretext. There upon the Amir sent an envoy to the British Governor Generalat Simla to invoke his intervention. Lord William Bentinck, the British Governor General, accepted the proposal and Ranjit Singh was warned not to cross the Sutlej . In 1833 Nawab negotiated a treaty of friendship and alliance with the British. In 1842 Parganas of Kot Sabzal and Ghung Bhara lost by the state in 1807, were conquered by the British from the Mirs of Sindh resorted to Bahawalpur state by Sr.Charles Napier. In 1848 the Amir of Bahawalpur assisted the British in the battle of Multan . As a result of Bahawalpur British alliance Multan fell and was made part of the British Indian territory. On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan III, Sadiq Mohammad Khan III, (1852-1853 ) was crowned as Amir. On assuming rule, he confined prince Haji Khan and his brothers and treated them harshly. A large number of the Bahawalpur army was demobilized. All the grants, rights and claims of Daudpotas and other usual expenses were diminished and abolished. These events made the Amir unpopular. On the 29 th of Rabi-ul-Sani, 1269 A.H, Fateh Garh Fort was attacked at night. Prince Haji Khan who was kept as prisner, was freed and brought to Khanpur.. Prince Haji Khan, who was kept as a prisnor, was freed and brought to Khanpur. Haji Khan entered Ahmedpur East without any resistance and Sadiq Muhammad Khan 111 was imprisoned. Prince Rahim nYar Khan succeeded his father, the late Amir Fateh Khan Abbasi, as Muhammmad Bahawal Khan IV (1858-1866). He was poisoned and died on the 25th March 1866. On the death of Bahawal Khan IV, Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV was crowned when he was four and half years old. He was installed in 1879, when he attained maturity. In the interim period from 1866 to 1879, British officers supervised the state. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, the next successor was about 16 years of age at the time of his father's death in 1907. He was then a child of three years old. He ruled the state till 1955 when it was integrated in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Meer Family of Rahim Yar KhanEdit
Meer Syed Muhammad Hussain Esqr was the 1st Tehsildar of the Tehsil Rahim Yar Khan in last quarter of 19th century. He was a lond lord of the area and very famous due to his kindness. He is called a Saint of this area. He was died getting an age of more than 100 years in 1963. In the old city of Rahim Yar Khan, one of the most populated bazaar/road is on his name. He had 8 sons and 7 daughters. All his sons were a big government officials during the period of Ex-State of Bahawal Pur. His elder son Meer Syed Ghulam Muhammad Shah Esr. was the Deputy Collector of Irrigation Department and he was died in 1976 at Bahawal Pur at an age of 78 years. His 2nd son Meer Syed Muhammad Tassadaq Hussain Shah Esq. was the Police Inspector and famous from his Designation as "Kaptan Sahib". He was died in 1953 at an age of 52 years at Bahawal Pur. His 3rd son was Meer Syed Tafazul Hussain Shah Esq. and he was a Sessions Judge. He died at an age of 62 years in 1964 at Rahim Yar Khan. The 4th son was Meer Syed Ahmed Hassan Shah Esq. and he was a Land Lord and he was also died in young age at Rahim Yar Khan. The 5th son of Meer Syed Muhammad Hussain Shah Esq. was Meer Syed Tajammul Hussain Shah Esq. He was Secretary of Muncipal Committee, Rahim Yar Khan. The plane of new city of Rahim Yar Khan including buildings of Town Hall was made during his tenure. He died in Karachi in 1985. Another one was Meer Syed Altaf Hussain Shah Esq. and he was also a Police Inspector. He was also died at the age of 56 years in 1968 at Rahim Yar Khan. His 7th son Meer Syed Inayat Hussain Shah Esq. was also an Official who served the Government of Ex-State of Bahawal Pur as well as Pakistan as Extra Additional Commissioner of Bahawal Pur. He is still alive and residing at Bahawal Pur. The last son was Meer Syed Sajjad Hussain Shah Esq. He was also a land lord and very famous for his social work. He died at Bahawal Pur in 1970.
Races and tribesEdit
The major tribes in the clony area are the Arain Jat, Rajput and Gujjar. They have all come from the adjoining districts of East and West Punjab . The old settlers are the Joya, Wattoo, Daudpota, Balouch, Syed and Pathan. In Cholistan area the Bohar, Lark, Bhen, who came from Arabia to preach Islam. The Jats and Rajputs came from Rajputana and Jaisalmir and converted to Islam in the reign of Feroz Shah Tughlak.
The Indus flows on the northern outskirts of the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh. There is no other river, Nullah or lake in this district.
Culture dress and ornamentsEdit
The common attire in the rural area for the male is a long loose shirt hanging up to the knees, made of coarse cloth, a chadder and pagri. In the urban areas, Shalwar and a Dupatta is the dress of choice. In the Cholistan area, the women generally wear short shirts and ghagras and Dopattas. People use cheap and coarse cloth for dresses. For footwear, men in the rural areas wear locally made shoes prepared by the village cobbler (Mochi). The women of this area are very fond of wearing ornaments, both golden and silver.
Wheat is the staple food grains of this area. Bajra or maize is also used in the villages in lieu of wheat. People in the rural area mostly consume vegetables, pulses, milk butter and ghee. The inhabitants ordinarily take meals thrice a day. The first in the morning before leaving for the work on the fields and consist of wheat bread with lassi (curd with water) milk and butter. The midday meal consists of wheat bread with lassi, onions, chillies, pickles, and seldom with cooked vegetables and meat. While evening meal is taken at home on return or in the field after the day's work and generally comprises wheat bread with vegetables, beef or mutton and in the summers with milk. Vegetables are consumed mostly in winter when turnips, radish and mustard are plentiful. Sag (pot herb) and dal are commonly used in super. Chopri roti (bread smeared with Ghee or butter) is given to the working male members of the family and the women folk rarely enjoy this buttered bread, and the addition of Gur or sugar makes it of surpassing richness. Tobacco is commonly smoked by the male cultivators. Dates and mangoes are the favorite fruits and the poor take them with chapati. Meat is rare commodity in villages available only at once a week and generally in the form of beef. In Sadiqabad area, a favorite dish of rich is Saji, a goat or lamb roasted in the oven or on fire.
Betrothal and marriageEdit
In an agrarian society, marriages are awaited occasions. Despite the hurry and pace of life brought in by the modern times with their tractors and threshers, there is enough time in the villages to look forward to the occasion and make preparations for it months in advance. It is an occasion for pomp and show and ostentation of joy, of settling family feuds, of sewing seeds of new tensions in the social and family relations. A marriage in a village, besides involving the spread around family also involves the whole village including those who work and help in making arrangements for the big occasion. But real strings are held in the hands of the man or woman who moves between the two houses, those of the groom and the bride. Such men and women belong usually to the families of the traditional barbers (Naais) who profess skills in many fields e.g. barbers, cooks, glib talkers, excellent emissaries between families, messengers and crude surgeons as they perform their skill from ordinary sores to the mandatory circumcision. The bride's parents are not supposed to broach the subject openly. On the occasion of engagement the groom's family take sweets, golden ring silk clothes for the bride and clothes other presents for the other members. The acceptance of such gifts is a sign that the engagement has been made. In return a Lungi and a gold ring is presented for the groom from the bride's side. The elders of both families sit together and pray for the prosperity of the new relationship and success of the marriage. In the phase approaching the wedding ceremony, the groom is called Ghoat and the girl is called as Kanwar. A week later or before the marriage the girl is totally confined and locally made cosmetic (paste) called Cheeko or ubtun is applied to her body to brighten her complexion. As the date of the marriage approaches, colorful and melodious songs known as Sehras arew sung by the relatives of the boy. However rejoicing at the home of the bride is not appreciated. On the night preceding the marriage, the palms of the bride and the groom are smeared with Mehndi and feast are arranged for the number of the relatives who arrived at the groom's house. The groom wears a colorful thread on his left wrist with a small Potli (knot) containing an iron ring and six herbs called Ganna. On the wedding day before the barat leaves for the brides house the groom is generally paid Nindra, in cash. He is not allowed to change his clothes, as he is supposed to put on new clothes at the bride residence where the old clothes are handed over to the family barber. On the arrival of Barat, a goat is demanded from the family of the groom and the ceremony is called Dheangen or Dheangana. After the Nikkah ceremony the groom is made to sit on a basket made of straws and his given a bath where after he wears new clothes offered by his in laws. Oil and musk are applied on his head in a ceremony called Tail Lagana and vail (cash ) are paid to the menials. After that the groom is taken to the bride's room where the sisters of the bride take a chance to play some lovely tricks with him. One shoes of the groom are stolen by the girls and a piece of thread is revolved in a circle seven times around the thumb of his raised right hand and toe of the foot in circles in a pursuance of a ceremony called Dawan Watra.. For the return of shoes the groom has to pay a handsome amount to his sisters in laws. Next the groom is taken to a room and seated on a cot with the bride facing towards him. Among the locals, their heads are touched seven times in a ceremony called Lavan or Sarmail. Muth Kholai rite is also performed and the groom opens flat the palm of the girl where after he is obliged to make some payment. During the Arsi ceremony the couple is enabled to see each other in the mirror. The arsi the groom touches the foot of the father in law and other elders for this gesture of obedience he is paid in cash. Doli is placed on Kachawa or a car or a bullock cart. The saraiki people perform the rukhsti in different manner. They place a saddle on the horse back and both the bride and the groom are seated on it. There they are tied with a dupatta at their waists before the departure of barat for the groom's house. When the barat arrives back to the groom's house some people slaughter a goat as a gesture of alm (sadqa) The girl is also paid Mun Dakhai or Ghond Kholai i.e; face showing. In the late night the groom is left alone with the bride. Walima denotes consummation of marriage. On third day or in some cases on the seventh day in a Satwara ceremony the bride along with the groom returns to her parents for a couple of days. Child marriage was common in the backward families especially amongst the locals. However with the introduction of the Muslim family Laws Ordinance, 1962 which prohibits it, it is somewhat discouraged. This custom was very common as a result of the inhibition that the girls could not be married outside their families and also with a view to avoid the alienation of property.It is still practice in some rural areas. Such marriages are also the consequences of Wata-sata. There is an agreement called Lakhai Parahi which is resorted to it if a girl is a major and she is married to a boy without exchange but in turn the boys enter s an agreement that on the event on the birth of a daughter this new born baby would be betrothed to a male member of the mother's family.
On the birth of a male child, sweet rice and milk are distributed in a ceremony called Chhatti. In most cases the child is named at this stage. The head of the child is shaven usually on seventh day or during the period of Chhillah and sacrifice of two goats in case of baby boy and a sheep or goat in case of baby girl is made in a ceremony called Aqiqa. Circumcision is also performed on the male infant at this stage. In certain cases meals are also served to the relatives and presents received for the baby. The mother during the first forty days, called the rakh period, is made to avoid visits to a house where there has been a recent death.
The dead body is given a bath (Ghusal) and is wrapped in a shroud (kafan). After the bath, perfume is sprayed on it and Namaz-E-Janaza is offered. After this the dead body is laid down in prescribed position, its head turned towards the holy Kaaba. Some families place dead bodies in wooden boxes before burial. For identification purposes, an epitaph is erected at the head of the grave. Sometimes a pacca tomb is also built. After the burial, prayers are also offered for the departed soul once near the grave and again outside the graveyard. Qulkhawani is held by recitation from Holy Quran and alms (Khairat) are distributed for the salvation of the deceased. Chelum is observed on fortieth day of death when new garments are given to Imama of the mosque and to the person who bathed the dead body . In some families, on the death of an old man, the Chelum ceremony is celebrated with a sumptuous feast for the relatives and friends. Instead of Chelum certain families observe jumarats and on every Thursday, meals are distributed amongst the poor, this continuous for seven consecutive Thursdays. Every year death anniversary is observed and food is distributed amongst the poor by the successor of the deceased. This rite is called Varheen. There is custom amongst the Cholistani, his heirs are obliged to offer one kilo of desi gheee and seven breads to each and every person of the tribe when they turn up to offer condolence, spreading over a period of one year. On the expiry of one year, all the tribes men assemble and are again served with meals by the heirs of the deceased. On that occasion, the most respected elder of the tribe declares the closure of the distribution of Sat Roti. A tale goes that a Cholistani Sardar died leaving behind a large number of cattle, sheep and goats and his heirs had to sell them off to observe the custom of Sat Roti in consequence thereof, they had to resort to begging. The custom of Sat Roti is performed to satisfy the vanity of the deceased and his successors.
Sports and festivalsEdit
Kabaddi is liked and played almost in all urban and rural areas of the districts. Besides, hockey, badminton, football, tennis, cricket, lawn tennis are played. Wrestlers of the district have position among wrestlers of the province. There is a Sports Committee headed by the Deputy Commissioner for the Organizing various Tournaments in the district. A District Sports Organizer also assist the Deputy Commissioner as Secretary of the Sports Committee in this respect. Twenty Sports Associations are working for promoting various sports in the district with the idea to prepare nursery for sports.
Places of interestEdit
Rahim yar khan city
Rahim Yar Khan city is situated in the center of the district. It is a prominent railway junction, on the main line of Pakistan Railways, between Lahore and Karachi . It is at a distance of 634 kilometers from Karachi, 566 kilometers from Lahore and 176 kilometers from Bahawalpur . Shahi Road, Railway road, Colony Gulberg road and Hospital road are the important roads in the city. Zaffar Market, New Sadiq Bazaar, Sadar Bazaar and Grain Market are the shopping centers in the city. A stadium known as Mahmud Stadium is situated at a distance of one kilometer from the city. It has a seating capacity for 15,000 persons and contains grounds for cricket, football, hockey and volley ball. There is Sadiq Club, which is located in Officers Colony and have spacious games. It has a swimming pool and vast halls. There are spacious grounds for various games. It has a swimming pool and vast halls. There are three swimming pools in the city.
UniLever Unilever, The international manufacturers of most famous brands of world like Sunsilk, Walls, Lux etc. has one of their major factories of Pakistan in Rahim Yar khan. It is located right in the city centre beside Railway Station.
Bagh-I-Bahisht. (The Garden of Heaven).
It is one of the most beautiful and biggest gardens of this area. It is 5 km far from SADIQ Abad. Its 1 st owner was Meer Syed Abid Hussain Esq. who had built this garden. The garden consists upon more than 75 acrs. After his death, his only son MEER SYED Zahid Hussain Esq. reconstructed it with his full zeal and zest and brought the each and every plant from all over the world and made it the beautiful lest one of this area. After his death in 2003, his only son Meer Syed Fazal Ellahi Fazli is maintaining it with the same spirit of his father and grandfather and still improving. This garden is, although, the private but also open for the public at prescribed hours and days.
Meer Syed Zahid Hussain’s Library.
Late Meer Syed Zahid Hussain Esq. created the biggest personal library of this area which has very antique collection of books on many topics. Some books including Quran Shareef are old and hand written scripts which are very prestigious back ground. Now, his only son Meer Syed Fazal Ellahi Fazli is maintaining this library. This library is also open for public.
Fauji Fertilizer Factory, Machi Goth.
This factory is 5 km far from Sadiqabad and one of the biggest fertilizer factories in Asia . It was built by Fauji Foundation which serves retired army personals. It was constructed in 1974 and was completed in 1979. Later on one more plant was established along with the previous one to increase the production capacity . Now Fauji Foundation owns two more plants in karachi (Known as FFBL) and Mir pur Mathelo (known as FFC -III ).
It is situated at a distance of 16 kilometers in the North of Rahim Yar Khan, on the lost river Hakra. The village is said to be named after the name of Raja Bhutta who captured this locality after Raja Dahir. This village is also claimed to be the birth place of Sassi, the renowned heroine of Sassi-Pannun and of Ab-ul-Fazal and Fiazi, sons of Mullah Mubarik.
Remnants and ruins of this fort are about 34 kilometers in the south of Rahim Yar Khan city, in Cholistan area. In 1767 A.D., Ali Murad Pirjani, founder of Trinda Ali Murad Khan (a village in Thesil Rahim Yar Khan ) built this fort.
Islam Garh Fort
Islam Garh ,the old Bhinwar Fort, was built by Rawal Bhim Singh in Samabat in 1665, as the following inscription on its gate in Babri character proves "Samabat 1665 Asuj Wadi 2, Maharaj Rawal Siri Bhim Singh ji Maharaj". The Fort is situated in the Cholistan area of Tehsil Khanpur. It is 46 kilometers south east of Baghla Fort. The fort is in a dilapidated state.
Khair Garh Fort
Remnants and ruins of this fort are located, about 40 kilometers south of Khanpur Town, in the Cholistan area. In 1189 A.H. Haji Khan, son of Ikhtiar Khan built it and named it Khair Garh.
Mau Mubarik Fort
According to Tarikh-e-Murad, a fort was built by Raj Sahanas Kharor in the time of Christ as a residence for his mother. The word Mau refers to mother in local language, and the word Mubarik is attached due to the shrine of Sheikh Hakim. The fort was taken by Shah Arghun in 1525 A.D. and was also laid siege to by Mahmood of Ghazni on his way to Somnat. It was one of the six fortresses of Raj Sahasi 11. It had 20 bastions and Towers. The ramparts were about 549 meters in circumference and the walls very strongly and thickly built. Here the shrine of a saint Sheikh Hakim is of great importance, where a Hindu jogi converted to Islam at the hands of Sheikh Hakim. The descendants of both Sheikh Hakim and the Jogi are still present in the area.
The ruins of Pattan Minar are located at a distance of about 8 kilometers in east south of Rahim Yar Khan city. It has variously been described as the remains of Asahoka period, who built it in 250 B.C. or a Buddist monastery. Nearby the minar, remains of a fort, a mosque and some tunnels are also visible. About 110 years ago Colonel Minchin a political agent of Ex-Bahawalpur state started the excavation of these tunnels but discontinued digging for some reasons or other. According to Colonel Toy it was the capital of the Hindu kingdom in 10 A.D. In the mid of the 18 th century A.D. Fazal Elahi Khan Halani a Daupauta chief destroyed it and used its materials in the construction of Baghla and Dingar Fort.
Population size, growth and distributionEdit
Population size and growthEdit
The total population of Rahim Yar Khan district was 3,141,053 as enumerated in march, 1998 with an intercensal percentage increase of 70.6 since March, 1981 when it was 1,841,451 souls. The average annual growth rate was 3.2 percent during this period. The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers which gives population density of 264 persons per square kilometer as against 155 persons observed in 1981 indicating a fast growth rate of the district.
The urban population was 616,582 or 19.6 percent of the total population of the district which grew at an average rate of 4.3 percent during 1981-98 and had decreased from 4.7 percent observed during 1972-81. There are three Municipal Committees and five Town Committees in the district.
Siraiki is the predominant language being spoken in the district, representing 62.6 percent of the population, followed by Punjabi and Urdu spoken by 27.3 and 2.9 percent respectively and Sindhi by 2.0 percent while others speak Pushto, Balochi, Bravi, Dari etc.
Literacy and education attainment literacyEdit
The literacy ratio in the district has increased from 20.0 percent in 1981 to 33.1 percent in 1998. The literacy ratio for males is 43.4 percent as against 21.8 percent for females. The ratio is much higher in urban when compared with rural areas both for male and female.