|• Body||Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Ganapathy P Rajkumar|
|• Corporation Commissioner||Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan Indian Administrative Service|
|• Commissioner of Police||A Amalraj Indian Police Service|
|• Metro||Template:Infobox settlement/areadisp|
|• Metro rank||16th|
|Time zone||Indian Standard Time (UTC+5:30)|
|Postal Index Number||641XXX|
|Vehicle registration||TN 37 (South), TN 38 (North), TN 66 (Central), TN 99 (West)|
Coimbatore, also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of the Noyyal River surrounded by the Western Ghats, it is the second largest city in the state after Chennai and 16th largest urban agglomeration in India. It is the largest city in the Kongunadu region. It is administered by the Coimbatore Municipal Corporation and is the administrative capital of Coimbatore district. It is one of the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major hub for textiles, industries, commerce, education, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing in South India. Coimbatore is also referred to as the "Pump City" and it supplies nearly half of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders, poultry and auto components with "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" and "Kovai Cora Cotton" recognised as Geographical Indications by theGovernment of India.
Coimbatore was part of Kongu Nadu during the Sangam period between c. 1st and the 4th centuries CE and was ruled by the Cheras as it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. The region was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century followed by the Nayaks who introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu Nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams. In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of Mysore.
In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district and in 1866 it was accorded municipality status. The city experienced a textile boom in the early 19th century due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai. Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialization. Coimbatore was ranked the best emerging city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. The city was ranked fourth among Indian cities in investment climate by Confederation of Indian Industry and 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by Tholons. Coimbatore has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Coimbatore was rated as the safest city in India for women according to National Crime Records Bureau report in 2015.
There are multiple theories regarding the origin of the name Coimbatore. According to one theory, "Coimbatore" is a derivation of Kovanputhur (literally 'new town of Kovan'), after chieftain Kovan or Koyan, evolved into Koyambatoor and later anglicised as Coimbatore. Koyamma, the goddess worshiped by Koyan evolved into Koniamma and later Kovaiamma. Another theory states that the name could have been derived from Kovaiamma.
The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Cheras during Sangam period between c. 1st and the 4th centuries CE and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. The Kosar tribe mentioned in the second century CE Tamil epic Silappathikaram and other poems in Sangam literature is associated with the Coimbatore region. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. A Chola highway called Rajakesari Peruvazhi ran through the region. Much of Tamil Nadu came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century. In the 1550s, Madurai Nayaks, who were the military governors of the Vijaynagara Empire, took control of the region. After the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom. They introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu Nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.
The decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai fuelled an economical boom in Coimbatore in the 1920s and 1930s. Coimbatore has seen rapid growth due to industrialisation and in 1981, Coimbatore was constituted as a Municipal corporation. On February 14, 1998, the radical Islamist group Al Ummah bombed 11 places across the city killing 58 people and injuring more than 200.
Coimbatore lies at 11 1 6N 76 58 21E in south India at 411 metres (1349ft) above sea level on the banks of the Noyyal River, in southwestern Tamil Nadu. It covers an area of 642.12 km2. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range to the West and the North, with reserve forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve on the northern side. The Noyyal River forms the southern boundary of the city, which has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater. The eight major tanks and wetland areas of Coimbatore are namely, Singanallur, Valankulam, Ukkadam Periyakulam, Selvampathy, Narasampathi, Krishnampathi, Selvachinthamani, and Kumaraswami. Multiple streams drain the waste water from the city.
The northern part of the city has a rich tropical evergreen forest with commercially significant trees such as teak, sandalwood, rosewood and bamboo. The soil is predominantly black, which is suitable for cotton cultivation, but some red loamy soil is also found. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, Coimbatore falls under the Class III/IV Seismic Zone, having experienced an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 on the Richter scale on February 8, 1900.
Coimbatore has a pleasant climate due to the presence of forests to the north and the cool winds blowing through the Palghat gap in the Western Ghats. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a tropical wet and dry climate, with the wet season lasting from October to December due to the northeast monsoon. The mean maximum temperature ranges from 35.9°C to 29.2°C and the mean minimum temperature ranges from 24.5°C to 19.8°C. The highest temperature ever recorded is 40.4°C on May 5, 1983 while the lowest is 11.7°C on January 8, 1912.
Due to the south-west monsoon winds passing through the Palghat gap, elevated regions of the city receive rainfall in the months from June to August. After a warm and humid September, the north-east monsoon starts from October lasting until early November. The average annual rainfall is around 700mm with the northeast and the southwest monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall. This periodic rainfall does not satisfy the water requirements of the city throughout the year and water supply schemes like Siruvani and Pilloor help to sustain the needs of the city during the non-monsoon months.
Coimbatore has a population of 1,601,438. As per the 2011 census based on pre-expansion city limits, Coimbatore had a population of 1,050,721 with a sex ratio of 997 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. It is the second largest city in the state after capital Chennai and the sixteenth largest urban agglomeration in India. A total of 102,069 were under the age of six, comprising 52,275 males and 49,794 females.The average literacy of the city was 82.43%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. There were a total of 425,115 workers, comprising 1,539 cultivators, 2,908 main agricultural labourers, 11,789 in house hold industries, 385,802 other workers, 23,077 marginal workers, 531 marginal cultivators, 500 marginal agricultural labourers, 1,169 marginal workers in household industries and 20,877 other marginal workers.
As per the 2001 census, Coimbatore had a population of 930,882 within the municipal corporation limits. The population of the urban agglomeration as per 2011 census is 2,136,916 with males constituting 50.08% of the population and females 49.92%. Coimbatore has an average literacy rate of 89.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 93.17% and female literacy is 85.3% with 8.9% of the population under six years of age. The sex ratio was 964 females per 1000 males. In 2005, the crime rate in the city was 265.9 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.2% of all crimes reported in major cities in India. It ranked 21st among 35 major cities in India in the incidence of crimes. In 2011, the population density in the city was 10,052 per km2.
Administration and politics Edit
|Mayor||Ganapathy P. Rajkumar|
|Deputy Mayor||S. Leelavathiunni|
|Commissioner||Dr K Vijay Karthikeyan, IAS|
|Police Commissioner||A Amalraj, IPS|
Coimbatore is amongst the fastest growing tier-II cities in India and a major hub for textiles, industries, commerce, education, information technology, healthcare and manufacturing in Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore houses more than 25,000 small, medium and large industries with the city's primary industries being engineering and textiles. TIDEL Park Coimbatore in ELCOT SEZ was the first special economic zone (SEZ) set up in 2006.
Coimbatore region experienced a textile boom in the 1920s and 1930s. Though, Robert Stanes had established Coimbatore's first textile mills as early as the late 19th century, it was during this period that Coimbatore emerged as a prominent industrial centre. Coimbatore is home to more than 17% of the fibre textile mills in India. Coimbatore has trade associations such as CODISSIA, COINDIA and COJEWEL representing the industries in the city. Coimbatore houses a number of textile mills and is the base of textile research institutes like the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International School of Textiles & Management, Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) and the South India Textile Research Institute (SITRA).
Coimbatore is the second largest producer of software in the state, next only to capital Chennai. TIDEL Park Coimbatore and other Information technology parks in the city has aided in the growth of IT and Business process outsourcing industries in the city. It is ranked at 17th among the top global outsourcing cities by Tholons.
Coimbatore is a major centre for the manufacture of automotive components in India with car manufacturers Maruti Udyog and Tata Motors sourcing up to 30%, of their automotive components from the city. G.D. Naidu developed India's first indigenous motor in 1937.
Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies nearly 50% of India's requirements of motors and pumps.
Coimbatore and its people have a reputation for entrepreneurship. The World Classical Tamil Conference 2010 was held in Coimbatore. The heavy industrialisation of the city has also resulted in the growth of trade unions.
Tamil is the official language and Kongu Tamil (also called Kangee or Kongalam), a dialect, is predominantly spoken. Coimbatore also has a significant number of Kannadigas, Telugus. During the 1970s the city witnessed a population explosion as a result of migration fuelled by increased economic growth and job opportunities.
The city's population is predominantly Hindu with minor Muslim and Christian population. Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists are also present in small numbers. According to the religious census of 2011, Coimbatore has 83.31% Hindus, 8.63% Muslims, 7.53% Christians, 0.28% Jains, 0.05% Sikhs, 0.02% Buddhists and 0.01% Others. 0.17% of the respondents did not state their religion.
Coimbatore cuisine is predominantly south Indian with rice as its base. Most local restaurants still retain their rural flavor, with many restaurants serving food over a banana leaf. North Indian, Chinese and continental cuisines are also available. Idly, dosa, paniyaram and appam are popular dishes. Coimbatore has an active street food culture and various cuisine options for dining. Arisi Paruppu Sadam, made from a mixture of dal and rice is a recipe that existed from fourth century CE and unique to the area.
Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of south India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of Tent Cinema in which a tent was erected on an open land to screen the films. Central Studios was set up in 1935 while S. M. Sriramulu Naidu established Pakshiraja Studios in 1945. The city conducts its own music festival every year. Art, dance and music concerts are held annually during the months of September and December (Tamil calendar month – Margazhi). Coimbatore also houses a number of museums and art galleries like G.D. Naidu Museum & Industrial Exhibition, H A Gass Forest Museum, Government Museum, Kadhi Gandhi Gallery and Kasthuri Srinivasan Art Gallery and Textile Museum.
The city is served by the Coimbatore International Airport at Peelamedu 15km from the city centre. The airport commenced operations in 1940 as a civil aerodrome with Indian Airlines operating Fokker F27, Douglas DC-3 and later Hawker Siddeley HS 748 aircraft. The then Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh declared the government's intention to upgrade the Coimbatore Airport to International status in a meeting with senior ministers on 6 June 2012 and it was granted the status of international airport by the Union Cabinet on 2 October 2012. The airport is operated by Airports Authority of India and caters to domestic flights to major Indian cities and international flights to Sharjah and Singapore. As of 2014-15, the airport was the 15th largest airport in India in terms of total aircraft movement, 18th largest in terms of passengers handled and 13th largest in terms of cargo handled. It has a single runway, which is 9760ft in length and is capable of handling large aircraft. Air Carnival, a private airline commenced its operations in 2016 with the Coimbatore International Airport as its hub.
Train service in Coimbatore started in 1861, upon the construction of the Podanur – Madras line connecting Kerala and the west coast with the rest of India. Coimbatore lies on the Coimbatore - Shoranur gauge railway line and the city falls under the Salem Division of the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways. The major railway station is the Coimbatore Junction which is the second-largest income generating station in the Southern Railway zone after Chennai Central and is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railways. Other major railway stations catering to the city include Coimbatore North Junction, Podanur Junction and minor stations.
Metro rail Edit
In 2012, Coimbatore Municipal Corporation proposed three rail routes. The first circular route will connect Gandhipuram with Ganapathy, Sivananda Colony, Sai Baba colony, RS Puram, Townhall and City Railway Station. The second circular route will connect Podanur with Trichy Road, Sungam, Redfields, Race Course, City Railway Station and Ukkadam. A linear line was proposed from Chinniampalayam to TNAU via airport, CODISSIA, PSG Tech, Lakshmi Mills, Gandhipuram, Coimbatore North Junction and Cowley Brown Road. Vadavalli and Thondamuthur were included in the linear line as part of the phase extension.Coimbatore metro rail work is expected to start in next financial year 2017-2018.
There are six major arterial roads in the city: Avinashi road, Trichy road, Sathy road, Mettupalayam road, Palakkad road and Pollachi road Coimbatore bypass is a series of bypasses connecting the various National Highways and State Highways passing through and originating from Coimbatore. The first section of the bypass, a Template:Convert/kmTemplate:Convert/track/abbr/Template:Convert/track/disp/Template:Convert/track/adj/on stretch from Neelambur to Madukkarai on National Highway 544 (L&T bypass road) opened for traffic in 2000. It was the first road privatisation project to be implemented on a build–operate–transfer model in South India. The city municipal corporation is undertaking the construction of six rail-over-bridges in the city.
Coimbatore is a major educational hub. The first college of Coimbatore, Government Arts College, was opened in 1875. The first engineering college in the city, the Arthur Hope College of Technology (now known as the Government College of Technology, Coimbatore), was started by G.D. Naidu in 1945 followed later by private engineering colleges PSG College of Technology and Coimbatore Institute of Technology in the 1950s. The Air Force Administrative College, established in 1949, is the oldest training institute of the Indian Air Force. Coimbatore Medical College was opened in 1966 and also city has another Government run ESIC Medical College. The Government law college started functioning from 1978. The agricultural school established in 1868 was converted into a full-fledged agricultural university Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1971 and the Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History was opened in 1990.
As of 2010, the district is home to 7 universities, 78 engineering colleges, 3 medical colleges, 2 dental colleges, 35 polytechnics and 150 arts and science colleges. The city houses three government run universities Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Bharathiar University, Anna University Coimbatore and four private universities. The city houses Government research institutes including the Central Institute for Cotton Research, Sugarcane Breeding Research Institute, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies. In 2008, Government of India announced a plan to establish a world class university in the region.
Four major English newspapers The Hindu,The Times of India, Deccan Chronicle and The New Indian Express bring out editions from the city. Business Line, a business newspaper also brings out a Coimbatore edition. Tamil newspapers which have Coimbatore editions include Dinamalar, Dina Thanthi, Dinamani, Dinakaran, Tamil Murasu and Maalai Malar (both evening newspapers). Two Malayalam newspapers – Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi also have considerable circulation in the city. Lotus News is headquartered in Coimbatore.
There are around 750 hospitals in the city with an in-patient capacity of 5,000 beds. The first health care centre in the city was started in 1909. In 1969, it was upgraded to Coimbatore Medical College Hospital and also city has government run ESI Hospital, which was renovated recently at Rs.520 crore with 500 beds. A government run tertiary care hospital with 1020 beds and provides free health care. The city corporation maintains 16 dispensaries and 2 maternity homes. People from nearby districts and the state of Kerala visit Coimbatore for medical tourism due to the availability of hospitals and healthcare facilities.
Sports and recreationEdit
Coimbatore is often referred to as the "India's motorsports hub" and the "Backyard of Indian Motorsports".
The city also hosts its own annual marathon called Coimbatore Marathon as an event to raise cancer awareness. Coimbatore District Chess Association (CDCA), established in 1940 is the oldest chess association in the country.
There are several amusement parks around the city, namely: Black Thunder water theme park near Mettupalayam, Kovai Kondattam amusement park at Perur and Maharaja Theme Park at Nillambur.
Since the 1980s, the city has had a few small shopping complexes and major shopping malls include Brookefields Mall and Fun Republic Mall. The city also has a number of parks including the VOC park, the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University park, Race Course Children's park and Bharathi park in Saibaba Colony. Coimbatore Zoo houses a number of animals and birds and is located near VOC park. The grounds are used for conducting fairs and events including the annual Independence day and Republic day celebrations. Popular cinemas include KG Cinemas, The Cinema and Cinépolis.